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Adarsh Yadav. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Distillation types 1.May 11, Types of distillation include simple distillation, Steam Distillation, Fractional Distillation and Vacuum Distillation.
Simple distillation can be used when the boiling points of two liquids are notably different from one another or to separate liquids from solids or nonvolatile mixers.
In simple distillation, a mix is heated to change the foremost volatile component from a liquid into vapor. The vapor rises and passes into a condenser. Usually, the condenser is cooled e. Steam distillation is employed to separate heat-sensitive components. Steam is added to the mixture, causing a number of it to vaporize. This vapor is cooled and condensed into two different liquid fractions.
An example is steam distillation of flowers to yield volatile oil and a water-based distillate. A fractionating column is employed to separate the components using a series of distillations called rectification.
In fractionationa mix is heated so vapor rises and enters the fractionating column. Vacuum distillation is employed to separate components that have high boiling points. Lowering the pressure of the equipment also lowers boiling points. Otherwise, the method is comparable to other types of distillation. Vacuum distillation is especially useful when the conventional boiling point exceeds the decomposition temperature of a compound.
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Click to allow Flash After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: Distillation Column Design. Description: Distillation Column Design Syed Zaheer Abbas Distillation: Process in which a liquid or vapour mixture of two or more substances is separated into its component Provided by: engineerin Tags: column design distillation. Latest Highest Rated. Title: Distillation Column Design 1 Distillation Column Design Syed Zaheer Abbas 2 Distillation Process in which a liquid or vapour mixture of two or more substances is separated into its component fractions of desired purity, by the application and removal of heat 3 The design of a distillation column can be divided into the following steps Specify the degree of separation required set product specifications.
Select the operating conditions batch or continuous operating pressure. Select the type of contacting device plates or packing. Determine the stage and reflux requirements the number of equilibrium stages. Size the column diameter, number of real stages. Design the column internals plates, distributors, packing supports. Mechanical design vessel and internal fittings. The greater the relative volatilities, the easier the separation. In the section below the feed, the more volatile components are stripped from the liquid and this is known as the stripping section.
Above the feed, the concentration of the more volatile components is increased and this is called the enrichment, or more commonly, the rectifying section. At total reflux the number of stages required for a given separation is the minimum at which it is theoretically possible to achieve the separation.
This sets the minimum possible reflux ratio for the specified separation. For many systems the optimum will lie between 1. As a general rule, the feed should enter the column at the point that gives the best match between the feed composition vapor and liquid if two phases and the vapor and liquid streams in the column. For large column heights, weight of the packed column is more than plate column.
Man holes will be provided for cleaning in tray Columns. In packed columns packing must be removed before cleaning. When large temperature changes are involved as in the distillation operations tray column are often preferred. Random-Packed Column generally not designed with the diameter larger than 1.
Calculation of Actual Reflux Ratio. Calculation of theoretical number of stages. Calculation of actual number of stages. Calculation of diameter of the column. Calculation of weeping point, entrainment. Calculation of pressure drop.Distillation is the process of purification of compounds based on their volatility. The different types of distillation include simple, fractional, steam, vacuum, and short path distillation. Historical evidence suggests that the principle of distillation has been in use since ancient times.
It is believed that ancient Arab chemists applied distillation for the first time to separate perfumes. Would you like to write for us? Well, we're looking for good writers who want to spread the word. Get in touch with us and we'll talk Distillation is a physical method of assorting mixtures depending upon the difference in the boiling point of the component substances.
In simple words, the working principle of distillation is to heat a mixture at a specific temperature, collect the hot vapors, and condense to separate the component substance.Animation Rektifikation
In short, a highly volatile compound is separated from a less-volatile or non-volatile compound by using distillation. Today, it is one of the most popular technique implemented for purification and separation of a mixture. There are several methods of distillation depending on the procedure and the instrument setup. Following are the common types. It is, however, comparatively expensive than any other types of distillation. This way, the temperature sensitive compounds are separated before decomposition.
It also requires periodic maintenance. When vacuum distillation is combined with fractional distillation method, components of a mixture get separated very easily. The condenser is configured in a vertical manner, between the heating flask and the collecting flask.
Distillation Column Design - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Thermal sensitive compounds can also be separated by following short path distillation. It is also used for processing edible oils and fats. There are two types of distillation columns namely, batch and continuous. The distillation process gets carried out when a batch of feed is introduced to the column.
A continuous operation is used commonly in the industrial applications. Out of the five main types, simple and fractional distillation types are the two widely used methods that are applied even today in petroleum-refining industries, laboratories, and chemical factories. Here is an article which would throw some light upon the working and types of rain gauges. I'm singing in the rain, just singing in the rain; What a wonderful….
Different types of distillation are simple, fractional, steam, vacuum and short path distillation. Distillation is a physical method of assorting mixtures depending upon the difference in the boiling point of the component substances. The working principle of distillation is to heat a mixture at a specific temperature, collect the hot vapors and condense to separate the component substance.
In simpler terms, a highly volatile compound is separated from a less-volatile or non-volatile compound by using distillation. As per evidences, the principle of distillation has been used since ancient times. It is believed that the ancient Arab chemists applied distillation for the first time to separate perfumes.
Today, it is one of the most popular technique implemented for purification and separation of a mixture. Types of Distillation: There are several methods of distillation depending on the procedure and the instrument setup.
Each distillation type is used for purification of compounds having different properties. Following are the common types. Share to Twitter Share to Facebook. Labels: Pharma Notes. Newer Post Older Post. Unknown Tuesday, November 21, am. Unknown Tuesday, April 03, am. Unknown Sunday, October 11, pm.
Published on Aug 8, SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Home Explore. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share! Embed Size px.
Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Meet Follow.Distillation is a process of separation of a specific substance from a liquid mixture by evaporating and subsequent cooling into a separate chamber. There are different types of distillation like. Azeotropic distillation. Here a liquid mixture is heated in a conical flask. This leads to evaporation of liquid with low boiling first.
This vapor is allowed to cool while passing through the cooling chamber. The resultant liquid formed from cooled vapor is collected in a separate flask. This is similar to simple distillation with the only addition of a fractionating column. This column is present in between the flask and condenser. This column helps to convert some of the vapor back to a liquid which drains back into the vial. This process leads to escape of only vaporable portion into the condenser.
Thus this procedure helps in obtaining a pure form of substance than that achieved by simple distillation.
The Various Types of Distillation That are Worth Knowing
As the name indicates, here steam is used for separation of the liquid mixture. A steady flow of steam is passed into a liquid mixture present in a round bottom flask. This steam carries away one of the liquid from the container, gets cooled in the cooling chamber. The fluid formed by cooling is collected separately. This type of distillation is used to separate high boiling substances from non-volatile impurities.
At this temperature, the vapor pressure of water is mm Hg and that of oil is mmHg. The combined sum is mmHg which is equivalent to atmospheric pressure. So to separate turpentine from impurities, it is mixed with water and then distilled by passing steam. The steam carries turpentine vapors and gets cooled in a condenser.
This is collected in a separate flask and they can be easily separated since the water and turpentine oil are immiscible. This is similar to simple distillation with the only exception is the use of vacuum to evaporate liquid at low temperatures.