Q03 s0. Except for use in a review, no portion of this book may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of the publisher. Neither the author nor the publisher assumes any responsibility for the use or misuse of information contained in this book. Chapter 2. Movementl Overcoming Obstacles; Chapter 4.
Chapter 6. Penetrating Buildings in an Attack Models for Restoring Work Capacity and Therefore, the author, publisher, and distributors disclaim anyliability and assume no responsibility for the use or misuse of the information herein. Shortt was the first outsider to train KGB personnel, and he has been active in the Baltic States both before and after independence, train' ing these republics' police and security forces.
This teads one to believe that the pages were either deliberately pulled because of sensitive information found on them, or thc Soviet military suffered from the same inefficiency as bureacuracies everywhere and the pages were inadvertently left out of the original printing. The places with missing rcrt have been footnoted In the following, Shortt briefly examines Soviet special operations to show the relationship ofvarious organizations and.
I was sitting in a small apartment in the Iawian capital of Riga in January lgg2withmembers of the Latvian Securiiy service-,s bodyguard department. Between us we were-as the Irish in me would say-doing justice to a goodly number of bottles of Kristal Dzidrais, Latvian vodka, and melnais balzams, a potent tarlike local liquor.
This manual was intended for the training of personnel operating on internal security duties within the Soviet Union and also in in-depth missions against enemies of the Soviet Union. Soviet Spetsnaz troops operated from front lines of battle up to 1, kilometers to the enemy's rear. While the snow and minusdegree temperature kept the Latvian vodka-in-waiting correctly chilled, I pored over the photograph album of my host and mused that it was, in many ways, similar to my own.
Theii primary emphasis was on physical capability, daring, and conditioning. Next, I looked over more recentry produced close-quarter-ba1tle cQB manuals from the army physical training department and the Naval Infantry2 termed in Russian rukopasinyi ioi.KGB SECRETS (And Why It Fell Apart)
Just when I thought I hai seen it all on special combat techniques! The manual you now hord in your hands has been transrated from its original cyrillic format. I was told that it was a very special manual because it was produced by A.The Interpreter seeks support for the translation, analysis and presentation of never-before-published KGB training manuals spanning multiple decades.
Following the description of the project below, we now introduce the 9 titles and summaries of the new batch of manuals first, then provide a link to the titles and summaries of the original batch, which were published when this campaign began.
You can support our work at our GoFundMe page here. The first translation, accompanied by an essay, related to the psychological characteristics of potential KGB recruits, will be published soon in The Daily Beast.
This project, presented by The Interpreterwill explore the history of Soviet espionage and subversion, as told through never-before-published KGB training manuals spanning multiple decades. They range in content from how to recruit and psychologically manipulate agents on Western soil; how to root out enemy disinformation schemes; how to infiltrate international scientific gatherings to recruit agents; to how to outflank suspected agents provocateurs. These are all methods still used today to undermine the United States and European countries.
Sovietologists, historians and intelligence experts will naturally find this project an invaluable addition of primary sources for understanding how Soviet intelligence pedagogy and practice worked. Lay readers will come away with accessible and useful pen portraits of how one of the most notorious security services ever contrived cynically tried to snare ordinary people — many of them Soviet citizens — for the purpose of making them do extraordinary things.
Most important, this project will help illuminate the theory and practice of ongoing Russian intelligence operations against the West and better immunize people from being duped, seduced or destroyed by them. Curation will include a stand-alone essay for each manual explaining the tradecraft it reveals and how it relates to actual historical episodes and contemporary Russian intelligence efforts.
Fitzpatrick, and Michael Weiss. Owing to the success of this campaign, the source for the original set of 11 manuals has provided The Interpreter with an additional nine. Below are the titles, page-lengths, years of publication and brief summaries of their contents:. The author explains that as Marxism-Leninism teaches, in order to determine the direction and forms of any activity, all the conditions for that activity must be studied. The intelligence climate changes constantly, influenced by politics, the economy, law, even as geography and culture have long-term effects.
A range of factors influencing the government and everyday life include political parties, individual political figures, major monopolists of the economy; the status of science and technology; the stage of economic development. Thus, the KGB looks at the scope for its intelligence activities in target countries through the prism of its communist belief system.
The KGB manual is careful to make the distinction between the agent and the confidential contact — and the intelligence officer who is the full-time, trained employee who runs them. Information includes documents on political, military, economic, scientific, etc.
The statements of the former head of the Iraqi government, Abd al-Karim Qasim killed in often seemed like the statements of a defender of democracy and an enemy of world imperialism, the author comments. In Marchan evaluation of Qasim was made indicating he was interested in conducting reactionary activities and suppressing the Communist Party.
Qasim and his followers seized control of Baghdad in The prime minister also intended to shift all the blame for any failure of the good will mission on the Soviets, to buy himself time and peace within the country. With secret reports, the Soviets were able to expose the Iranian rulers. Another example of the importance of information took place inwhen the then-British Defense Minister Alexander made a trip to Korea.
His public statements claimed unanimity of positions between the UK and the US.Dolmatov, the chief instructor at the Dynamo sports center in Moscow. Policemen used it. It was not your usual after -work health club. Completed inThe KGB Alpha Team Manual borrowed heavily from the standard Spetsnaz text on reconnaissance, transportation, physical conditioning, personal combat, building entry, and prisoner acquisition.
However for KGB Alpha Team usage, Dolmatov added major sections on assassination, sabotage, countersubversion measures, and snatching citizens off the streets - both inside and outside the USSR. Illustrations of Spetsnaz killing U. Special Forces and 1st Cavalry personnel accompanied the instructions. Now exclusively from Paladin Press, this manual is available for the first time outside the former Soviet Union.
The English-language translation includes illustrations and tactics championed by the KGB, as well as an introduction by Jim Shortt, who trained numerous Western military and police security forces in anti-Spetsnaz tactics and in became the first Westerner to train Soviet military personnel in counterterrorist measures. Shortt was the first outsider to train KGB personnel, and he has been active in the Baltic States both before and after independence, training these republics' police and security forces.
Shortt also trained mujahideen forces during the war in Afghanistan. Several pages in chapters 5 and 6 of this manual are missing. The same pages were missing in every copy of the manual that Shortt examined. This leads one to believe that the pages were either deliberately pulled because of sensitive information found on them, or the Soviet military suffered from the same inefficiency as bureacuracies everywhere and the pages were inadvertently left out of the original printing.
The places with missing text have been footnoted. In the following, Shortt briefly examines Soviet special operations to show the relationship of various organizations and to document how the information contained in the manual was used by the KGB, GRU, MVD, and other "special assignment units.
I was sitting in a small apartment in the Latvian capital of Riga in January with members of the Latvian Security Service's bodyguard department.
Between us we were - as the Irish in me would say - doing justice to a goodly number of bottles of Kristal Dzidrais, Latvian vodka, and melnais balzams, a potent tarlike local liquor. Our host, a major with the service, had been in his time a graduate and later instructor at the Soviet Defense Intelligence GRU 4 Spetsnaz Brigade based near the Estonian town of Viljandi.
While the snow and minus - 16 - degree temperature kept the Latvian vodka-in-waiting correctly chilled, I pored over the photograph album of my host and mused that it was, in many ways, similar to my own. Although the uniforms and equipment were different, the scenarios were similar.
Their primary emphasis was on physical capability, daring, and conditioning. Next, I looked over more recently produced close-quarter-battle CQB manuals from the army physical training department and the Naval Infantry, termed in Russian rukopashnyi boi. They covered unarmed scenarios, edged weapons such as the bayonet, entrenching tool, and knifeand finally projectiles, as well as the techniques for throwing bayonet, rifle and bayonet, entrenching tool, and a special sharpened steel plate.
Just when I thought I had seen it all on special combat techniques! The manual you now hold in your hands has been translated from its original Cyrillic format.
I was told that it was a very special manual because it was produced by A. It was not your usual after-work squash facility, but rather an integral part of the training and update of the Soviet regime's countersubversion forces. This manual was intended for the training of personnel operating on internal security duties within the Soviet Union and also in in-depth missions against enemies of the Soviet Union. Soviet Spetsnaz troops operated from front lines of battle up to 1, kilometers to the enemy's rear.
The task of the internal army was putting down rebellion and hunting Western special forces that landed in time of war behind Soviet lines. Sandwiching the interior army of the MVD and the Defense Ministry's exterior army was the KG B-its First Chief Directorate that had the exterior army was the "Cascade" Kaskad program for offensive special forces operations against the West, including assassination and sabotage.
To understand the different types of Soviet special assignment forces that existed and still exist to a large extent within the Confederation of Independent States CISthe successor to the USSRit is necessary to examine the development and evolution of such units from the Bolshevik seizure of power in For more informations.
Savoisien - - Various - reads - Permalink. To content To menu To search The Savoisien. Search on the blog.This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. The Foundations of Special Physical Training Except for use in a review, no portion of this boot may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of the publisher.
Neither the author nor the publisher assumes any responsibility for the use or misuse of information contained in this book. Chapter 2. Techniques and Methods for Teaching Personal Combat Penetrating Buildings in an Attack Chapter 7. Shorn was the first outsider to train KGB personnel, and he has been active in the Baltic States both before and after independence, train- ing these republics' police and security forces, Shortt also trained mujahideen forces during the war in Afghanistan, Several pages in chapters 5 and 6 of this manual are missing.
The same pages were missing in every copy of the manual that Shortt examined. This leads one to believe that the pages were either delib- erately pulled because of sensitive information found on them, or the Soviet military suffered from the same inefficiency as bureacuracies everywhere and the pages were inadvertently left out of the original printing.
The places with missing text have been footnoted. Between us we were — as the Irish in me would say — doing justice to a goodly number of bottles o fKristal DzidraisLatvian vodka, and melnais halzamsa potent tarlike local liquor.
Our host, a major with the service, had been in his time a graduate and later instructor at the Soviet Defense Intelligence GRU 4 Spetsnaz' Brigade based near the Estonian town ofViljandi. While the snow and minusdegree temperature kept the Latvian vodka-in-waiting correctly chilled, I pored over the pho- tograph album of my host and mused that it was, in many ways, similar to my own.
Although the uniforms and equipment were different, the scenarios were similar. When 1 came to the training manuals used by the Soviet Spetsnaz, I noticed that they were sur- prisingly few and all written in by veterans of the partisan units, OSNAZ Brigade, and Reconnaissance Scouts.
Their prima- ry emphasis was on physical capability, daring, and conditioning. They covered unarmed scenarios, edged weapons such as the bayonet, entrenching tool, and knifeand finally projectiles, as well as the techniques for throwing bayonet, rifle and bayonet, entrenching tool, and a special sharpened steel plate. Just when I thought I had seen it all on special combat Techniques!
The manual you now hold in your hands has been translated from its original Cyrillic format. I was told that it was a very spe- cial manual because it was produced by A. This manual was intended for the training of personnel operat- ing on internal security duties within the Soviet Union and also in in-depth missions against enemies of the Soviet Union. To understand the different types of Soviet special assignment forces that existed and still exist to a large extent within the Confederation of Independent States [CIS], the successor to the USSRit is necessary to examine the development and evolution of such units from the Bolshevik seizure of power in Lenin maintained himself in power by force of arms.
It was to the Communist party what the SS was to the Nazis. Stalin formed special units to carry out assassinations abroad of rivals such as Trotsky in Mexico and to rid Stalin of internal opponents and those who did not actively support him. Inthe Cheka created an Administration for Special Tasks to kill or kidnap persons outside of the territory of the USSR who were deemed enemies of the state.
In June when Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, large numbers of NKVD border guards fought against the Nazis and, as Communist party faithfuls, were among the first partisan units operating behind German lines. The NKVD internal forces formed 15 divisions, which though sometimes committed to front-line fighting were normally used at the rear of the Red Army to prevent retreat or desertion. They were also used to punish populations that collaborated with the Germans.
They fought antiguerrilla actions in Ukraine and the Baltic States. Osnaz are politically superior in role to Spetsnaz. It launched units behind German lines — a total of more than 7, men.
But it also operated against Ukrainian and Baltic States nationalists in hunter teams and extermination squads. The Soviet army created its own Spetsnaz teams of razvedchi ki or reconnaissance scouts responsible for diversionary recon- naissance, which meant gathering information by penetrating behind enemy lines, intercepting communications, taking and interrogating prisoners — all while they were there murdering senior officers, and destroying headquarters, weapon dumps, stores, roads, bridges, etc.
Simply put, this was a security measure by one part of the central committee to prevent a state security body from ever wielding the type of concentrated power the NKVD had exerted under and on behalf of Stalin.KGB Lt. For the first time in my life I was quartered in a dormitory. In the two-story wooden house of pre-war construction, the walls were starting to become dilapidated, in places the floors would bend, but it was warm and cozy in the winter, and in the spring lilac branches would brush against the windows.
In the room there were five continual residents, all with some life experience, and among us even a doctoral candidate. We all had switched professions. We were allowed home only on Saturdays, to return by Monday morning. We had no such problem — between the five of us we had mastered nine languages from professional civilian training.
Eternal Marxism-Leninism. Much academic time was relegated to it, and exercises in this subject resembled the eastern method of threshing — an animal tied to a shaft walks in a circle along the sheaves lied out on the threshing floor, and its hooves dislodge the grain from the ears.
Marxism-Leninism in its interpretation then was extremely remote from science. Every academic text, even in our rather special academic institution, began with a pious thesis on the class character of intelligence. The time when class character was ascribed to physics, biology, and mathematics was departing slowly.
Things happen slower in Russia than elsewhere.
Inside Russia’s top secret KGB spy school
Lectures on Marxism and time spent on preparation for seminars gave us, however, a splendid opportunity to read anything we liked to our satisfaction. The people selected for our room were not drinkers, but interested in life and readers, and we enjoyed books not so much from the library as those we exchanged amongst each other. The special disciplines seemed incredibly interesting, i.
I suspect that initially it came about as a result of the not completely accurate translation of the name of the book by former CIA chief Allen Dulles The Craft of Intelligence It would seem that Dulles could have used the word art if he considered intelligence an art.
Doubtless, the vanity of professionals played its role. Belonging to the sphere of the arts rather than a craft elevated many in their own eyes.
I consider intelligence a complex and unique craft, where, as in every craft, there is an element of art where corresponding skills are necessary, yet mastery of the basic techniques of the job, painstaking labor, thorough professional training, and conscientiousness are more important than the fits of inspiration by which art lives. I defended this view in further official discussions, far from always meeting the approval of veterans.
Photography in all its special variations; the preparation of microdots; secret writing; methods of communication; ways to covertly remove information; the fundamentals of acquiring sources and work with them; methods of conducting surveillance and techniques for detecting it — all of that was new and extremely fascinating.
The crowning moment of all this came as practical exercises in the city that lasted several days. We had to carry out a number of operations for communicating with an agent, including a personal meeting.It's hard to ignore the specter of the KGB when considering his dealings with the United States and the rest of the world. The agency was at once responsible for internal security and secret policing to squash nationalism and dissent, guarding the USSR's border as well as the Communist Party leadership and the country's government.
It also engaged in gathering foreign intelligence, investigations, and counter-intelligence. Despite its reach into civilian life, the KGB was considered a military service that was governed by army laws.
For its intelligence operations, the KGB's practices involved setting up both legal and illegal espionage residencies in the countries it targeted. The details were often taken from the lives of other participants in the plot or from the identities of dead people.
The KGB also placed agents in Soviet embassies and consulates, protected by diplomatic immunity. The spies engaged in gathering political, economic, and military-strategic information as well as planting disinformation.
In many cases, hard-to-detect poison was the weapon of choice. One famous case was the poisoning of the defector Nikolay Khokhlov. He suffered a sudden and severe illness while at an anti-Communist meeting in Frankfurt, Germany in September The doctors had a hard time figuring out what happened until finding evidence of him being poisoned by a thallium derivative of arsenic and possibly other chemical agents.
Khokhlov himself thought that he had been poisoned by radio-activated thallium. The CIA would never have learned about the true causes of numerous incidents if it wasn't for defectors. Besides the notorious instances of violence, the KGB was also known for utilizing a whole array of spying tradecraft, employing code names, stealing and photographing documents, using dead letter boxes or dead dropsand recruiting foreign nationals as agents like the US Navy Chief Warrant Officer John Anthony Walker and the FBI counterspy Robert Hanssen.
KGB agents were also known to become "friends of the cause" or agents provocateur, purposefully infiltrating target groups to sow dissension, disinformation and affecting their politics. An example of an "active measures" or disinformation campaign by the KGB would be its efforts in and later which had the goal of creating negative world opinion toward West Germany.
The history of the KGB and its legendary methods
The KGB campaign involved setting fire to synagogues and painting swastika signs in public places while making it seem like the West Germans were responsible. The KGB was also responsible for helping crush internal subversion and possible revolutionary plots in the countries of the Soviet Bloc. KGB agents prepared the route for the eventual invasion by the Red Army while infiltrating the country disguised as Western tourists. Their goal was to plant subversive evidence that Western intelligence agencies were trying to depose the Communist government of Czechoslovakia.
KGB - Alpha Team Training Manual - 1993
This, in turn, would justify the invasion by the USSR. KGB special operative Igor Morozov left atop an armored vehicle during his assignment to the Badakhshan province, Afghanistan. Credit: Wikipedia. Another famous instance of KGB involvement happened during the war in Afghanistan. In December of54 members of the KGB Special Forces along with paratroopers and other soldiers managed to attack and kill the Afghan President Hafizullah Amin and — of his personal guards.While some Western intelligence agencies or government specialists may have had some of the manuals in the past, they were not made available to the general public until now.
These internal documents from the s and s were used in an era before the Internet and mass electronic surveillance. Yet what is most intriguing about them is that these same methods are still used today — and now amplified with new technology. Now we are making all these manuals available to be downloaded in the Russian original, and also providing some translations of the table of contents and notes and summary translations of the contents for four of the manuals not previously covered.
But as I sat in my office in Moscow reading reports about the growing list of revelations coming from Agee, I cursed our officers for turning away such a prize. Both sides in the Cold War played this game, even before there officially was a Cold War, and now we know that the Soviets had ample case histories showing the lengths to which their democratic rivals would go to lure KGB officers into elaborate traps. This is the first of a three-part series based on never-before-published training manuals for the KGB, the Soviet intelligence organization that Vladimir Putin served as an operative, and that shaped his view of the world.
All were trained in the same dark arts, and these primers in tradecraft are essential to an understanding of the way they think and the way they operate.
They recruit assets. This is classic spycraft from Sun Tzu 6th century BC till today. A shadowy mosaic of cut-outs, access agents, plausible denial, gossamer webs. Whether or not Mueller proves collusion, Russia clearly took its best shot. Of particular value as targets were retired U. A compliment, of sorts, to the vigilance of the main adversary and its allied services, the analysis is an exercise in self-criticism.
It acknowledges that by the United States had learned from prior mistakes of laxity and sloppiness in counterintelligence, forcing Moscow Center to adapt to far less hospitable environments. Where this document deviates from the other two is that it delves into greater anecdotal detail about some of those screw-ups and even names names-or codenames, anyway. In this manual, the KGB outlines its ambitious plans to target and penetrate the leading Western nations, particularly the US, and international institutions led by the West.
The manual also reveals the ideology-skewed self-perceptions of the Kremlin, as the Soviet Union believes that Western nations are failing, and their workers are soon to rise up and overthrow the capitalists and monopolists.
The manual provides a number of interesting case studies on how the KGB penetrated a number of Western political parties believed to be hostile to the Soviet Union and disrupted or even destroyed them, amplifying internal tensions or spreading disinformation — in a revealing game plan that was to be used successfully 36 years later in the Russian interference with the elections in the US.
The manual states unabashedly that agents are to be recruited in Western peace movements, but that some of them might be more useful in opposing their own countries than just gathering intelligence. A variety of reasons ranging from political sympathies to mercenary motives could enable a foreigner to work for the KGB. And if these were not enough, threats, pressures, and blackmail were used, particularly on emigres. A number of case studies give an idea of how carefully the KGB did its recruiting to avoid dangles from Western intelligence or misjudgments of character that might lead to exposure.
Chances are that the staples of Western spy novels and movies today — dead drops, microdots, safe houses, hotel managers or tailors living double lives as spies — got their start in the intensive and inventive methods of the KGB.
In this manual, we learn all the enormous amount of detail and caution that has to go into a seemingly simple operation like having an agent pick up instructions from his handler. While this manual reveals the increasing use of radio technology and micro-photography, also on display are the old-fashioned methods of vetting agents for good character, modest lifestyle, political correctness and obedience are even more important, and backed up by constant double-checking and creation of alternative plans.
In all communications, intelligence and officers have to be careful not to create patterns or complexities that will either tip off the increasingly hostile and wary Western counter-intelligence agencies, or make it to hard to avoid mix-ups and disasters. The amateur might think a knothole in a tree or a garbage can in an alley might make good dead drops or secret hiding places for transmitting film or letters, but the KGB manual points out that children can also play near such trees and janitors can cart the trash away.
All of these secret places put under carpets or set under railings with magnets or rolled up and put into toilets were all too easily discovered.